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The interruption of the slave trade in , led rural property owners to accumulate extra capital, which was to be invested in the. Transformation of urban blocks and property relations: cases from Metropolitan Area of Porto, as well as of the major investments in transport systems. On the 27th of January, , the Trustees were authorized by the Corporation to sell the property on College Hill and to locate all of the departments of. BETTING OVER UNDER NFL

This legacy in many cases is in serious danger of disappearing due to the lack of a public policy effectively guaranteeing its preservation. The preservation of this important railway whose value was recognized by preservation agencies of the State and the Union depends on the completion of a rigorous study of its spaces, its material evidence and the use and operation of its equipment over time.

Only this systematization will ensure the full maintenance worthy of this heritage. With the delay in promoting a comprehensive inventory of the buildings and establishing a coherent conservation policy however, the risk is being run of losing not only the buildings themselves but also the equipment, permanent track and its rolling stock. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra. Martins, A. Ribeiro, J. A Carne. Soukef Jr. Cem Anos Luz. The Railway Conquest of the World.

London: William Heinemann. The cultural significance of such sites, and the buildings and artefacts that they contain is clear, given their role in structuring the everyday lives of individuals, building communities and regional identities. The loss of industry or its transformation involves more than the loss of the symbolic fabric of communities that such material remains comprise.

It also means the loss of the material, embodied, productive engagement of people with the processes that make up the industry. These are the embodied skills that exist only in the relationship between people and things tools, machines, materials , sites and environments and that make them productive workers.

The convention sets out a list of guidelines, or rules that define Intangible Cultural Heritage, reinforcing its relevance to Indigenous heritage practices, such as those of Asia, Africa and South America. A further piece of research based on a framework-knitting museum is currently in preparation.

The focus in both is on knowledge as intangible heritage. As well as being an opportunity to engage deeply with the workers, the project made it possible for the team to go beyond static representations of the material artefacts in the factory by constructing a virtual model of the machine, which gives access to the physical process of machine lace-making in a new and powerful way. Thus, a process that appears obscure is made more understandable through these multiple forms of representation.

Following on from this work is a project currently in preparation that aims to secure skills that pre-date those of machine lace making, and which are their origin. These are the skills of operating a knitting frame, which are central to the operation and the sustainability of a working museum near Nottingham. However, the dwindling number of people who know the framework knitting process means significant aspects of this intangible industrial heritage are at risk of complete loss.

This difficulty in sequencing actions and monitoring results leads to dropped stitches and damaged needles. It is linked to their inadequate knowledge of the mechanism — the material artefact and its components — and the way to use it. We aim to do this by combining the animation with visualisation of how the knitter uses their eyesight to attend to the process, based on information generated through eye tracking technology.

Their involvement will make it possible to validate the enhanced learning material, testing its effectiveness before it is used to augment the training of volunteers at RFKM. In anticipation of enthusiasm for framework knitting, its heritage and the creative potential and entrepreneurial possibilities that it offers, four of the research participants will receive training as trainers. This will mean that the enhanced training materials will ensure a multiplier, or ripple effect that helps pass on framework knitting skills, thereby sustaining this important aspect of industrial textile heritage for future generations.

Figure 4: Bobbin winding at Cluny lace in Recruiting undergraduate trainees, who are young adults, will also help to address the gap in visitor audiences created by the reluctance of year olds to engage with museums Jensen Through involvement with a heritage environment that is creative and genuinely interactive, the trainees have an opportunity to experience heritage as a concept and entity that is relevant to them.

In addition to courting the interest of young adults via innovative training methods, the museum will also make use of the 3D animation of the frame in the context of display, interpretation and visitor engagement. RFKM has awards for its innovative and creative approach to interpretive display and its engagement of younger, school age audiences. The research team are confident that 3D animation, which explains the framework knitting process in graphic, three dimensional, narrated detail will engage adult audiences.

These devices, which appear as a wall mounted reflective glass surface, become active when passing visitors activate a sensor. Once activated the surface can incorporate the reflected image of the viewer into a moving image, a 3D animation in this case, thus creating a somewhat a participatory experience. Smith argues that heritage is constantly created through discourse and that hegemonic approaches to heritage heavily influence what is valued and how it is valued.

For example, recent urban regeneration of cities in the UK and USA has used industrial heritage in highly selective and affective ways to market romantic versions of the broken and discarded past for contemporary consumption Collins In contrast, the work of the team at Nottingham Trent University seeks to recognise what is intangible yet vital to negotiating identity, valuing the relatively small-scale narratives that accrue round industrial crafts.

Contact: tom. Contact: nicola. Contact: J. Botticello uel. Urban civic pride and the new localism. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. Basic: New York Felkin, W. A history of the machine-wrought hosiery and lace manufactures. London: Longmans Green. Fisher, T. Cultural Geographies. Special Issue on skill, forthcoming.

Freedberg D. Trends in Cognitive. Sciences Vol Issue 5. May Pp — Haraway, D. Jensen N. Smith L. In October , the Special Relationship, a non-profit arts organisation specialising in the production of live literary events, organised a 4-day unabridged reading of Moby-Dick as part of the London Literature Festival. In support of the reading, nearly a hundred artists, illustrators, animators, sculptors, dancers, actors and musicians were commissioned to further celebrate the text. Half of the readers were members of the public who had volunteered to read.

The enthusiasm of the participants, the large audience and press interest coverage proved that this book has resonance to contemporary British audiences. Keywords: American literature, Industry, U. K Introduction The increasing popularity of literary festivals, sometimes called book or writers festivals, is demonstrated by the rapid expansion of both the number and size of events Robertson and Yeoman Literary festivals are keen to satisfy the audience demand for experiences and events that celebrate the cultural heritage of literature.

The Special Relationship is a London-based non-profit arts organisation with the mission statement to promote, encourage, support and celebrate the literary arts and its practitioners in the United Kingdom by developing unique literary events that include the participation of under-represented individuals and groups, local communities and other charitable organisations.

Their experience over the last four years producing live literature echoes findings in the literature McIntosh and C. Prentice Namely, that audiences interested in cultural heritage are attracted to events that offer authenticity — or at least the perception of authenticity. Additionally, audiences want to personalise the experience. They were eager to demonstrate how they too are part of this cultural heritage and how this piece of cultural heritage is a part of their definition of self.

An impulse identified by Johanson and Freeman Moby-Dick Unabridged There is a strong argument for Moby-Dick to be considered part of the general cultural heritage of humanity. Firstly, the book itself is steeped in the cultural heritage of the United Kingdom. The most obvious reason the UK can claim a part of the cultural heritage of the book is that it is written in English, that bastardisation of a dead Germanic dialect that holds the awkward grafting of Norse grammar and vulgarisation of the Latin tongue Crystal via the Normans.

Add to that the smattering of vocabulary filched from other cultures during the centuries of empire and you have a language unique to this island that many of its prior colonial holding use as their national language, including America. The book was written in and the War of American Independence still lingered in living memory. The cultural influence of Britain appears in the text as well.

At the time of publication, American whaling was nearing its peak but it was still a young industry compared to European counterparts. In chapters 32, 41, 53, and , Melville references practices and traditions of whalers from England. Moby-Dick is unquestionably part of the canon of English-language literature and the shared cultural history of the United Kingdom and America. Tom Basden Pictured.

Photo credit: 2 on the Run Photography. It is a large book. A marathon reading needs a sense of endurance. The book takes around 25 hours to be read aloud. The multi-textural nature of the book lent itself to a live reading.

Throughout the novel, the novel flips between a straight-forward adventure story, an introspective meditation on existence and God, a thorough and exhaustive description of the 19th century whaling industry processes that turned hundreds of thousands of living whales into heating oil, a tongue-in-cheek taxonomy of marine mammal biology, a Shakespearean play and a sermon. This variety helps change the rhythm and tone of the reading, and that helps people to keep paying attention.

Over the course of the four days, the event had choirs, dancers, theatre groups, performance poets, a food van selling chowder, a funeral procession, projected illustrations and a theatre set including life size whale ribs and painted backdrop Figure 1. In practical terms this served to lighten the attention load for the audience.

It allowed their attention to wander from the text being read but still remain within the context of the event and the book. However, throughout the production, a key principle was established: none of the flares should interrupt the text and the text will be read exactly as it appears in the book.

This included the character headings and parenthetical stage directions that appear in the chapters that are a play script. This was to respect the first principle of staging a cultural heritage event, authenticity. What people Want from Cultural Heritage Events Authenticity The importance of the perception of authenticity to cultural heritage consumers is a common theme in the literature Hargrove ; McIntosh and C.

The emphasis on being unabridged was important. It implied that a 4 day live reading of an entire book would be diminished if it was an abridged, reduced or diminished version. One of the readers of the event was the novelist Liza Klaussman, who is a descendent of Herman Melville. Once again, there seems to be a desire to claim authenticity of the author, with the implication that his progeny can somehow confer legitimacy to the event by her participation.

The Special Relationship is an arts organisation that has two American members. To have Americans presenting, discussing and organising an event centred around this American novel was considered a positive feature by the Southbank Centre and the audience in general. Personalisation Another aspect discussed in Johanson and Freeman is the desire by consumers of cultural heritage to personalise the experience. They access the experience by placing the work within context of themselves.

In the simplest terms, people personalised the experience by way of relating holidays spent in locations mentioned in the book, such as New York, New Bedford and Nantucket. The association of geography as a means of grounding cultural heritage and personal experience was also seen when audience members and press coverage localised Moby-Dick and its author to places in the United Kingdom. It is not surprising when people are accessing a piece of cultural heritage of a foreign culture that they identify with.

We saw this occurring in a number of ways in the participants, audience and press coverage. Throughout the book there are references to locations in England. In Chapter of Moby-Dick, Melville names specifically a sperm whale skeleton that still exists today at a country estate in Yorkshire. There is also the intangible, stylistic localisation that made this attractive to audiences.

This gave the UK audience yet another point of access to claim this book as part of their own local cultural heritage. Half of our readers were volunteers from the general public. We organised a number of rehearsals for the practical purpose of ensuring that volunteers gained experience with being on stage and reading out loud in front of a large audience.

During the rehearsal sessions, readers volunteered unprompted what the book meant to them personally. They often talked about when they had read it or even failed to read it. The book itself has a reputation for being challenging and participants often talked about failing to finish it on their first attempt, but trying again when circumstances changed and were able to complete and appreciate the novel.

The book signified an accomplishment for them. We discovered that the rehearsals themselves became a valuable experience for the volunteers. We saw participants networking both at the rehearsals and social media. Additionally, we took a number of step to foster this sense of personal relevance for participants. Volunteers from the public got the same amount of time to read as the invited authors and celebrities, which was 10 minutes each. Readers were encouraged to read in their own voice.

It was important to the project that the book was heard in the myriad of accents here in the UK. We generally favoured women readers to counterpoint the male cast of characters. All of this helped foster a sense of ownership of the volunteers and increased the personal value of the experience.

This need is most typified by an email received by one of the participants, Caroline Hack. It was a fantastic opportunity to share my passion for the book and meet a wide range of people from diverse backgrounds who shared and started sharing that passion.

I am a visual artist partway through an Arts Council England funded artist in residency at Burton Constable Hall in South Yorkshire where they have a whale skeleton mentioned in Moby Dick. Moby Dick Unabridged could not have come at a better time as I was not only able to talk to people at the event and rehearsals about my project, but also talk to visitors to Burton Constable Hall about the Moby Dick reading in London.

I have been using social media to promote my project and gained new followers and a wider audience for that from connecting with people at the rehearsals, the event and after. I have gained useful contacts for the future and because of my social media activity I know of one and possibly two groups who are now thinking of doing marathon Moby Dick readings in other parts of the country.

The rehearsals and the event itself increased my skills and confidence in performing in such an event. I was particularly impressed with the structure of the rehearsal where we were gently guided into reading aloud, using and adjusting the mic and the transitions between speakers, given good advice and lots of encouragement. But more than this we were in a small group of readers around our own time slot so we got to know the people who would be around when we would be performing two weeks later.

On the day there this meant there were friendly faces, and a reassuring sense of camaraderie when in the audience, green room and whilst waiting at the side for our turn. She mentions the rehearsals as well as the event itself as being important, which reinforced our belief that involving participants in the process as well as the event itself was important for fostering the shared ownership. Added to this were the clear influences of the literary heritage of Britain on the book written when the United States was a new country and had not yet developed a cultural heritage of its own.

It was for reasons such as these that Moby-Dick was chosen as the book for the unabridged live reading in London. However, the Special Relationship organisation purposely designed their event to emphasise aspects of authenticity and encouraged participants and audience to personalise the experience of the event. In addition to writing fiction, he holds a PhD in Artificial Intelligence. Sam Taradash is co-founder of the literary variety night The Special Relationship and the Moby Dick Unabridged project Contact: info thespecialrelationship.

The Arabian nights: tales from a Thousand and one nights. Modern Library, New York. Crystal, D. The Cambridge encyclopaedia of the English language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. Hargrove, C. Authenticity in Cultural Heritage Tourism. Forum J. Trust Hist. Johanson, K. Continuum 26, — Prentice, R. Affirming authenticity. Moby-Dick, or, The whale. Penguin, London. Robertson, M.

The pillow book. Penguin classics. Penguin books, London. Shakespeare, W. Wordsworth Editions, Ware. Bread and Circuses Publishing. Reviewed by Coralie Acheson Sometime in the dark, chill, midwinter months my twitter feed began to stir with news of an exciting new book.

Intrigued I ordered my own copy and waited, somewhat impatiently, for it to drop through the letterbox. On arrival existing commitments meant it could not be properly considered, and I took to carrying it around with me, snatching stolen glimpses into its pages, out of order and with a vague sense of confusion. When, finally, I was able to give it a proper reading, it unfolded and unfurled, expanding my imagination as it disorientated and challenged my perceptions.

The book uses photography and poetry as much as prose, and illustrates and accompanies these with the use of non-traditional typography and playlists for the music listened to while writing. From Hill to Sea is available as a printed book, but also as an ebook with embedded links to streamed music FPC Given the scope of this work it would not be possible to consider every aspect of it in this short review.

Instead, the themes of place, perception and story have been identified for discussion here. These themes thread in and out of the text and have particular resonance for those working in the fields of heritage and archaeology. As a book of psychogeographical observations this is, effectively, a book designed to challenge ordinary and normative perceptions of place. Psychogeography is a way of looking at the world around us differently, attempting to see what lies beneath the surface Coverley It is an embedded practice that requires one to be present where they are, to be present in places which are not necessarily comfortable and familiar, and to allow oneself to become disorientated in those places which are familiar.

The way we perceive place may initially be influenced by its mapped representation. From Hill to Sea includes accounts of places where the reality may be very different to the map. One landscape appeared featureless on google maps, but when explored was revealed as an ancient landscape crossed by a coffin road and dotted with wildwood FPC Another place appeared as a fox shaped woodland on historic maps, but today only a small area survives amidst the modern streets FPC This theme, of places not being how they may initially appear, is found throughout the book.

Linking altered perception, and the places perceived through it, are the stories which are held within those places, and the stories imagined in them. One particularly interesting concept used in From Hill to Sea is that of haunting. A rusting monolith of industrial equipment sighing in the wind has a story to tell, but it is not one that is often heard.

Even more ephemerally, the stories we carry within ourselves also influence our perception of places. While it does include a number of short but insightful essays examining the thoughts of some of the founding fathers of the discipline, its strength comes from the way it invites the reader to participate.

The book is itself a revised version of dispatches originally posted online, updated to incorporate input from other sources e. FPC Additionally, the use of photographs, poetry and musical suggestions draws the reader themselves into the ongoing narrative, adding their own thoughts to the corpus of the imagination that the book represents.

Ultimately, this is not a book that provides answers, but instead challenges the questions being asked. Natasha Warikoo is professor of sociology at Tufts University. Set against the backdrop of the environmental movement that swept the country in the late s and early s, Dawn at Mineral King Valley tells the engaging story of how the Forest Service, the Disney company, and the Sierra Club each struggled to adapt to the new, rapidly changing political landscape of environmental consciousness in postwar America.

At first, the plan was met with unanimous approval from the press and elected officials—it seemed inevitable that another pocket of wild natural land would be radically changed and turned over to profit a massive corporation. Then the small, scrappy Sierra Club forcefully pushed back with litigation that propelled the modern environmental era by allowing interest groups to bring lawsuits against environmentally destructive projects.

Selmi uses his authoritative narrative voice to recount the complete history of this revolutionary legal battle and the ramifications that continue today, almost 50 years later. Daniel P. Selmi is the Fritz B. Madagascar is a place of change. A biodiversity hotspot and the fourth largest island on the planet, it has been home to a spectacular parade of animals, from giant flightless birds and giant tortoises on the ground to agile lemurs leaping through the treetops.

Some species live on; many have vanished in the distant or recent past. Today, Madagascar is a microcosm of global trends. What happens there in the decades ahead can, perhaps, suggest ways to help turn the tide on the environmental crisis now sweeping the world.

She previously served as vice chancellor of the University of Cambridge, and in , she was awarded a DBE Dame Commander of the British Empire for her services to higher education. At the heart of democracy lies a contradiction that cannot be resolved, one that has affected free societies since their advent: Though freedom of speech and media has always been a necessary condition of democracy, that very freedom is also its greatest threat.

When new forms of communications arrive, they often bolster the practices of democratic politics. But the more accessible the media of a society, the more susceptible that society is to demagoguery, distraction, and spectacle. Tracing the history of media disruption and the various responses to it over time, Zac Gershberg and Sean Illing reveal how these changes have challenged democracy—often with unsettling effects.

The Paradox of Democracy captures the deep connection between communication and political culture, from the ancient art of rhetoric and the revolutionary role of newspapers to liberal broadcast media and the toxic misinformation of the digital public sphere.

With clear-eyed analysis, Gershberg and Illing show that our contemporary debates over media, populism, and cancel culture are not too different from democratic cultural experiences of the past. Sean Illing and Zac Gershberg do just that in a very interesting and intriguing project.

Sean Illing is a senior writer at Vox and the host of its Conversations podcast. Irish music as we know it today was invented not only in the cobbled lanes of Dublin or the green fields of County Kerry but in the burgeoning American metropolis of early twentieth-century Chicago.

Right in the Eye! Berthe Weill, a formidable Parisian dealer, was born into a Jewish family of very modest means. One of the first female gallerists in the business, she first opened the Galerie B. Written out of art history for decades, Weill has only recently regained the recognition she deserves. By the time of her death in , Weill had promoted more than three hundred artists—including Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, Diego Rivera, and Suzanne Valadon— many of whom were women and nearly all young and unknown when she first exhibited them.

Berthe Weill — was a French art dealer. In these poems, Peter Balakian wrestles with national and global cultural and political realities, including challenges for the human species amid planetary transmutation and the impact of mass violence on the self and culture. In this dialogical multi-sectioned poem, an estranged couple encounters each other, after years, on the cliffs of the New Jersey Palisades. The dialogue that ensues reveals the evolution of a kaleidoscopic memory spanning decades, reflecting on the geological history of Earth and the climate crisis, the film Hiroshima Mon Amour, the Vietnam War, a visionary encounter with the George Washington Bridge, and the enduring power of love.

Peter Balakian is the author of eight books of poems including Ozone Journal, which won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry, and Ziggurat, both published by the University of Chicago Press. He is Donald M. MARCH 80 p. The lyricism here is of utter beauty. No Sign is a splendid, necessary book. These poems take on fundamental subjects—like the nature of time and consciousness and how or why we become who we are—but Shapiro makes them urgent and timely.

They meet an abiding need to find empathy and understanding in even the most challenging places—amid disaffection, public discord, and estrangement. His grasp of contemporary life—in all its insidious violence and beauty—is distinct, comprehensive, and profound. He currently lives in Durham, North Carolina, with his dog, Sammy. Inhabiting a mix of lyric structures, these poems are set in diverse locales from the middle of the ocean to the summit of Mont Blanc, from the backyards of America to the streets of international cities.

There is a hesitant yet powerful wisdom in The Lookout Man, as Dischell allows his edgy vision and singular perspectives to coexist with the music of his poems. In Sound Experiments, Paul Steinbeck offers an in-depth historical and musical investigation of the collective, analyzing individual performances and formal innovations in captivating detail. JULY p.

This aesthetic was uniquely grounded in nurturing communal ties across generations, as well as a commitment to experimentalism. Steinbeck shows how the creators of these extraordinary pieces pioneered novel approaches to instrumentation, notation, conducting, musical form, and technology, creating new soundscapes in contemporary music.

Paul Steinbeck is associate professor of music at Washington University in St. Kalmoe and Lilliana Mason Radical partisanship among ordinary Americans is rising, and it poses grave risks for the prospects of American democracy. The January 6, , insurrection and the partisan responses that ensued are a vivid illustration of how deep these currents run.

How did American politics become so divided that we cannot agree on how to categorize an attack on our own Capitol? For over four years, through a series of surveys and experiments, Nathan P. Kalmoe and Lilliana Mason have been studying radicalism among ordinary American partisans. In this groundbreaking book, they draw on new evidence—as well as insights from history, psychology, and political science—to put our present partisan fractiousness in context and to explain broad patterns of political and social change.

Early chapters reveal the scope of the problem, who radical partisans are, and trends over time, while later chapters identify the conditions that partisans say justify violence and test how elections, political violence, and messages from leaders enflame or pacify radical views. Kalmoe and Mason find that ordinary partisanship is far more dangerous than pundits and scholars have recognized. However, these findings are not a forecast of inevitable doom; the current climate also brings opportunities to confront democratic threats head-on and to create a more inclusive politics.

Timely and thought-provoking, Radical American Partisanship is vital reading for understanding our current political landscape. What happens to a society—and a planet—when capitalism outgrows democracy? The tensions between democracy and capitalism are longstanding, and they have been laid bare by the social effects of COVID Democracy has been subjugated by the demands of capitalism. For many, work has become unfair. In Democratize Work, essays from a dozen social scientists—all women —articulate the perils and frustrations of our collective moment, but they also see the current crisis as an opportunity for renewal and transformation.

Amid mounting inequalities tied to race, gender, and class—and with huge implications for the ecological fate of the planet—the authors detail how adjustments in how we organize work can lead to sweeping reconciliation. By treating workers as citizens, treating work as something other than an asset, and treating the planet as something to be cared for, a better way is attainable.

Building on cross-disciplinary research, Democratize Work is both a rallying cry and an architecture for a sustainable economy that fits the democratic project of our societies. A must-read. Julie Battilana is the Joseph C. Together they lead the www. Miranda Richmond Mouillot is a French-American writer, translator, and editor with a degree in eighteenth-century French History and Literature from Harvard University.

Binder and Jeffrey L. Kidder An eye-opening analysis of college activism and its effects on the divisions in contemporary American politics. The past six years have been marked by a contentious political atmosphere that has touched every arena of public life, including higher education. Though most college campuses are considered ideologically progressive, how can it be that the right has been so successful in mobilizing young people even in these environments?

As Amy J. Kidder show in this surprising analysis of the relationship between political activism on college campuses and the broader US political landscape, while liberal students often outnumber conservatives on college campuses, liberal campus organizing remains removed from national institutions that effectively engage students after graduation. And though they are usually in the minority, conservative student groups have strong ties to national right-leaning organizations, which provide funds and expertise as well as job opportunities and avenues for involvement after graduation.

Though the left is more prominent on campus, the right has built a much more effective system for mobilizing ongoing engagement. Amy J. Binder is professor of sociology at the University of California, San Diego. She is the author of Contentious Curricula and coauthor of Becoming Right. Jeffrey L. Kidder is professor of sociology at Northern Illinois University. He is the author of Parkour and the City and Urban Flow. The influence of polymath philosopher John Locke — can still be found in a dizzying range of fields, as his writings touch on issues of identity, republicanism, and the nature of knowledge itself.

As Arcenas makes clear, each generation has essentially remade Locke in its own image, drawing inspiration from and transmuting his ideas to suit the needs of the particular historical moment. Claire Rydell Arcenas is assistant professor of history at the University of Montana. The book will surprise and inform every reader invested in the history of American political culture. There is simply nothing comparable in the existing literature.

This book is its defense. In the new century, the triumph of democracy at the end of the Cold War turned to retrenchment. The core democracies, in America and Britain, succumbed to polarization and misrule. Dictatorships, such as China, made themselves assertive. Ringen argues that democracy must be rooted in a culture that supports the ability of citizens to exchange views and information among themselves and with their rulers. Democracy should prize freedom and minimizing unfairness, especially poverty.

Altogether, Ringen offers powerful insights into the meaning of democracy, including a new definition, and how countries can improve upon it and make it function more effectively. Timely and thought-provoking, How Democracies Live is a sober reminder of the majesty of the democratic enterprise. Smith How and why early modern European artisans began to record their knowledge.

Smith considers how and why, beginning in CE, European craftspeople began to write down their making practices. Rather than simply passing along knowledge in the workshop, these literate artisans chose to publish handbooks, guides, treatises, tip sheets, graphs, and recipe books, sparking early technical writing and laying the groundwork for how we think about scientific knowledge today.

Focusing on metalworking from — CE, Smith looks at the nature of craft knowledge and skill, studying present-day and historical practices, objects, recipes, and artisanal manuals. From these sources, she considers how we can reconstruct centuries of largely lost knowledge. In doing so, she aims not only to unearth the techniques, material processes, and embodied experience of the past but also to gain insight into the lifeworld of artisans and their understandings of matter.

Pamela H. With roots in the world-renowned Making and Knowing Project, it offers an important addition to the histories of skilled craft practice, of science and technology, and of the premodern and early modern periods. Wolcott Living in the Future reveals the unexplored impact of utopian thought on the major figures of the Civil Rights Movement.

Utopian thinking is often dismissed as unrealistic, overly idealized, and flat-out impractical—in short, wholly divorced from the urgent conditions of daily life. But as Victoria W. Wolcott makes clear that the idealism and pragmatism of the Civil Rights Movement were grounded in nothing less than an intensely utopian yearning.

Key figures of the time, from Martin Luther King Jr. Living in the Future recasts the various strains of mid-twentieth-century civil rights activism in a utopian light, revealing the power of dreaming in a profound and concrete fashion, one that can be emulated in other times that are desperate for change, like today. Victoria W. Wolcott is professor of history at the University of Buffalo. This astonishing book will forever change how we think about utopia and the struggle for democracy, both in the United States and across the globe.

Few twentieth-century figures have been lionized and vilified in such equal measure as Friedrich Hayek—economist, social theorist, leader of the Austrian school of economics, and champion of classical liberalism. A landmark work of history and biography, Hayek is a major contribution both to our cultural accounting of a towering figure and to intellectual history itself.

Bruce Caldwell is research professor of economics and the director of the Center for the History of Political Economy at Duke University. He is the general editor of the Collected Works of F. Hayek series, also published by the University of Chicago Press. Inventing the Alphabet provides the first account of two-and-a-half millennia of scholarship on the alphabet.

Drawing on decades of research, Johanna Drucker dives into sometimes obscure and esoteric references, dispelling myths and identifying a pantheon of little-known scholars who contributed to our modern understandings of the alphabet, one of the most important inventions in human history. The book moves through the centuries, finishing with contemporary concepts of the letters in alpha-numeric code used for global communication systems. Along the way, we learn about magical and angelic alphabets, antique inscriptions on coins and artifacts, and the comparative tables of scripts that continue through the development of modern fields of archaeology and paleography.

Her artist books are included in museums and libraries in North America and Europe, and her creative work was the subject of a traveling retrospective, Druckworks — 40 Years of Books and Projects. Jarvis and T. Since , partisan political appointees in the Department of the Interior have offered two conflicting views of the National Park Service NPS : one vision emphasizes preservation and science-based decision-making, and another prioritizes economic benefits and privatization.

These politically driven shifts represent a pernicious, existential threat to the very future of our parks. For the past fifty years, brothers Jonathan B. Destry Jarvis have worked both within and outside NPS as leaders and advocates. National Parks Forever interweaves their two voices to show how our parks must be protected from those who would open them to economic exploitation, while still allowing generations to explore and learn in them.

Still worse, its effects will be irreversible. With authority and passion, the authors present an outline of the necessary defensive action to be undertaken now. Wilson Jonathan B. Jarvis was the eighteenth director of the National Park Service, serving from to He served for forty years with the NPS as a ranger, biologist, and park superintendent in eight national parks.

Levine A critical examination of the complex system of college pricing—how it works, how it fails, and how fixing it can help both students and universities. How much does it cost to attend college in the United States today? The answer is more complex than many realize. College websites advertise a sticker price, but uncovering the actual price—the one after incorporating financial aid—can be difficult for students and families.

This inherent uncertainty leads some students to forgo applying to colleges that would be the best fit for them, or even not attend college at all. Colleges suffer too because losing these prospective students can mean lower enrollment and less socioeconomic diversity.

If markets require prices to function well, then the American higher-education system—rife as it is with ambiguity in its pricing—amounts to a market failure. Levine explains why institutions charge the prices they do and discusses the role of financial aid systems in facilitating—and discouraging—access to college. Affordability issues are real, but price transparency is also part of the problem. As Levine makes clear, our conversations around affordability and free tuition miss a larger truth: that the opacity of our current college-financing systems is a primary driver of inequities in education and society.

In a clear-eyed assessment of educational access and aid in a post-COVID economy, A Problem of Fit offers a trenchant new argument for educational reforms that are well within reach. Phillip B. Levine is the Katharine Coman and A. He is the author, coauthor, or coeditor of five books devoted to statistics and the analysis of social policy and its effect on individual behavior.

The world of hip-hop is saturated with religion, but rarely is that element given serious consideration. In Street Scriptures, Alejandro Nava focuses our attention on this aspect of the music and culture in a fresh way, combining his profound love of hip-hop, his passion for racial and social justice, and his deep theological knowledge.

Nava analyzes the religious heartbeat in hip-hop, looking at crosscurrents of the sacred and profane in rap, reggaeton, and Latinx hip-hop today. Augustine and William James, Nava examines the ethical-political, mystical-prophetic, and theological qualities in hip-hop, probing the pure sonic and aesthetic signatures of music, while also diving deep into the voices that invoke the spirit of protest. Every day, Americans surrender their private information to entities claiming to have their best interests in mind.

This trade-off has long been taken for granted, but the extent of its nefariousness has recently become much clearer. In this startling book, Lawrence Cappello targets moments from the past years of US history when privacy was central to battles over journalistic freedom, national security, surveillance, big data, and reproductive rights. None of Your Damn Business is a rich and provocative survey of an alarming topic that grows only more relevant with each fresh outrage of trust betrayed.

This book is a must-read for legislators, policymakers, and anyone curious about the ways their privacy could potentially be compromised by the government, the media, or data brokers. Most economists would agree that a thriving economy is synonymous with GDP growth. The more we produce and consume, the higher our living standard and the more resources available to the public.

This means that our current era, in which growth has slowed substantially from its postwar highs, has raised alarm bells. But should it? Is growth actually the best way to measure economic success—and does our slowdown indicate economic problems? The counterintuitive answer Dietrich Vollrath offers is: No. Looking at the same facts as other economists, he offers a radically different interpretation. Rather than a sign of economic failure, he argues, our current slowdown is, in fact, a sign of our widespread economic success.

Our powerful economy has already supplied so much of the necessary stuff of modern life, brought us so much comfort, security, and luxury, that we have turned to new forms of production and consumption that increase our well-being but do not contribute to growth in GDP. In Fully Grown, Vollrath offers a powerful case to support that argument. He explores a number of important trends in the US economy: including a decrease in the number of workers relative to the population, a shift from a goods-driven economy to a services-driven one, and a decline in geographic mobility.

In each case, he shows how their economic effects could be read as a sign of success, even though they each act as a brake of GDP growth. He also reveals what growth measurement can and cannot tell us—which factors are rightly correlated with economic success, which tell us nothing about significant changes in the economy, and which fall into a conspicuously gray area. His triumph is in showing the degree to which these [GDP numbers] make economic growth an unreliable measure of success.

Dietrich Vollrath is professor of economics at the University of Houston. The Green River, the most significant tributary of the Colorado River, runs miles from the glaciers of Wyoming to the desert canyons of Utah. Over its course, it meanders through ranches, cities, national parks, endangered fish habitats, and some of the most significant natural gas fields in the country, as it provides water for 33 million people.

The Green is crucial, overused, and at-risk, now more than ever. As a former raft guide and an environmental reporter, Heather Hansman knew these fights were happening, but she felt driven to see them from the river itself. So she set out on a journey, in a one-person inflatable pack raft, to paddle the river from source to confluence and see what the experience might teach her.

Mixing lyrical accounts of quiet paddling through breathtaking beauty with nights spent camping solo and lively discussions with farmers, city officials, and other people met along the way, Downriver is the story of her journey, a foray into the present and future of water in the West. Heather Hansman is an award-winning journalist whose work has appeared in Outside, California Sunday, Smithsonian, and many others.

After a decade of raft guiding across the United States, she lives in Seattle. The ideas at the root of quantum theory remain stubbornly, famously bizarre: a solid world reduced to puffs of probability; particles that tunnel through walls; cats suspended in zombie-like states, neither alive nor dead; and twinned particles that share entangled fates.

For more than a century, physicists have grappled with these conceptual uncertainties while enmeshed in the larger uncertainties of the social and political worlds of the twentieth century, a time pocked by the rise of fascism, cataclysmic world wars, and a new nuclear age.

Ranging across space and time, the episodes span the heady days of the s, the dark times of the s, the turbulence of the Cold War, and the peculiar political realities that followed. In Quantum Legacies, Kaiser unveils the difficult and unsteady work required to forge some shared understanding between individuals and across generations, and in doing so, he illuminates the deep ties between scientific exploration and the human condition.

JUNE p. Superb popular science. At breakfast tables and bakeries, we take for granted a grain that has made human civilization possible, a cereal whose humble origins belie its world-shaping power: wheat. Weaving together history, evolution, and ecology, Amber Waves explores much more than the wild roots and rise of this now ubiquitous grass: it illuminates our complex relationship with our crops, both how we have transformed plant species and ecosystems for food, and how our society has changed in response to the need to secure food sources.

She received a fellowship from the Arthur P. Sloan Foundation to work on this book. Zabinksi is a reliably optimistic guide, pointing us toward a hopeful food future. But the key ingredient that makes the sophisticated scent linger on the skin is precisely this bizarre digestive by-product—ambergris. A rare secretion produced only by sperm whales, which have a fondness for squid but an inability to digest their beaks, ambergris is expelled at sea and floats on ocean currents for years, slowly transforming, before it sometimes washes ashore looking like a nondescript waxy pebble.

This unusual and highly alluring book promises to change that by revealing the unique history of ambergris and introducing us to the secretive collectors and traders who populate the clandestine modern-day ambergris trade.

Floating Gold is an entertaining and lively history that not only covers these precious gray lumps and those who covet them, but also presents a highly informative account of ocean ecology, the natural history of whales and squid, and even a history of the perfume industry. Christopher Kemp is a scientist living in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Though they yearned for liberation, the people of Normandy steeled themselves for further warfare, knowing that their homes, land, and fellow citizens would have to bear the brunt of the attack.

In D-Day through French Eyes, Mary Louise Roberts resets our view of the usual stories of that momentous operation, taking readers across the Channel to view the invasion anew. Roberts builds her history from an impressive range of gripping first-person accounts from French citizens, reinvigorating a story we thought we knew.

The result is a fresh perspective on the heroism, sacrifice, and achievement of D-Day. The bitterly tangled webs of race and housing in the postwar United States hardly suffer from a lack of scholarly attention. Built upon detailed stories of AFSC activists and the obstacles they encountered in their work in Chicago, Philadelphia, and Richmond, California, To Live Peaceably Together is an engaging and timely account of how the organization allied itself to a cause that demanded constant learning, reassessment, and self-critique.

Her fine-grained investigation of the cultural ramifications of housing struggles provides a fresh look at the last seventy years of racial activism. Tracy E. Conventional wisdom holds that, until the Spanish-American War of , the United States was a feeble player on the world stage, with an international presence rooted in commerce rather than military might. Michael A. Circling the globe from the Mediterranean to South America and the Arctic, these voyages reflected the diverse imperial aspirations of the new republic, including commercial dominance in the Pacific World, religious dominance in the Holy Land, an empire of slavery in South America, and diplomatic prestige in Europe.

As Verney makes clear, the United States had global imperial aspirations far earlier than is commonly thought. Verney is assistant professor of history at Drury University. Numbers may seem fragile—they are, after all, frequent objects of obfuscation or outright denial—but they have also never been more influential in our society, figuring into everything from college rankings to vaccine efficacy rates. This timely collection by a diverse group of humanists and social scientists challenges undue reverence or skepticism toward quantification and shows how it can be a force for good despite its many abuses.

Limits of the Numerical focuses on quantification in several contexts: the role of numerical estimates and targets in explaining and planning for climate change; the quantification of outcomes in teaching and research; and numbers representing health, the effectiveness of medical interventions, and well-being more broadly. The authors complicate our understanding of these numbers, uncovering, for example, epistemic problems with some core numbers in climate science.

But their theme is less the problems revealed by case studies than the methodological issues common to them all. This volume shows the many ways that qualitative and quantitative approaches can productively interact—how the limits of the numerical can be overcome through equitable partnerships with historical, institutional, and philosophical analysis. Stephen John is the Hatton Lecturer in the philosophy of public health in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge, where he is also a fellow of Pembroke College.

Would the most recognizable ideas in the French social sciences have developed without the influence of Brazilian intellectuals? Through this collective intellectual biography, Terms of Exchange reveals connections that shed new light on the Annales school, structuralism, and racial democracy, even as it prompts us to revisit established thinking on the process of knowledge formation through fieldwork and intellectual exchange. At a time when canons are being rewritten, this book reframes the history of modern social scientific thought.

Rather than constructions of belief accepted only by simple-minded people, Michelle Karnes shows that these spectacular wonders were near impossibilities that demanded scrutiny and investigation. This is the first book to analyze a diverse set of writings on such wonders, comparing texts from the Latin West—including those written in English, French, Italian, and Castilian Spanish—with those written in Arabic as it works toward a unifying theory of marvels across different disciplines and cultures.

Karnes tells a story about the parallels between Arabic and Latin thought, reminding us that experiences of the strange and the unfamiliar travel across a range of genres, spanning geographical and conceptual space and offering an ideal vantage point from which to understand intercultural exchange. Karnes traverses this diverse archive, showing how imagination imbues marvels with their character and power, making them at once enigmatic, creative, and resonant.

Skirting the distinction between the real and unreal, these marvels challenge readers to discover the highest capabilities of both nature and the human intellect. Karnes offers a rare comparative perspective and a new methodology to study a topic long recognized as central to medieval culture. American cities are rife with nonprofit organizations that provide services ranging from arts to parks, and health to housing.

These organizations have become so ubiquitous, it can be difficult to envision a time when they were fewer, smaller, and more limited in their roles. Turning back the clock, however, uncovers both an eye-opening story of how the nonprofit sector became such a dominant force in American society, as well as a troubling one of why this growth occurred alongside persistent poverty and widening inequality.

Nonprofit Neighborhoods begins in the decades after World War II, when a mix of suburbanization, segregation, and deindustrialization spelled disaster for urban areas and inaugurated a new era of policymaking that aimed to solve public problems with private solutions.

From deep archival research, Dunning introduces readers to the activists, corporate executives, and politicians who advocated addressing poverty and racial exclusion through local organizations, while also raising provocative questions about the politics and possibilities of social change. The lessons of Nonprofit Neighborhoods exceed the municipal bounds of Boston, where much of the story unfolds, providing a timely history of the shift from urban crisis to urban renaissance for anyone concerned about American inequality—past, present, or future.

In her important interrogation into the nature of public-private partnerships, Dunning provides important insight into the changing nature of state power and the persistence of structural inequality. Lucidly written and deeply researched, this is an excellent book, poised to recast several scholarly fields.

In this groundbreaking book, Mario Daniels and John Krige set out to show the enormous political relevance that export control regulations have had for American debates about national security, foreign policy, and trade policy since Indeed, they argue that from the s to today the issue of how to control the transnational movement of information has been central to the thinking and actions of the guardians of the American national security state. The expansion of control over knowledge and know-how is apparent from the increasingly systematic inclusion of universities and research institutions into a system that in the s and s mainly targeted business activities.

As this book vividly reveals, classification was not the only—and not even the most important—regulatory instrument that came into being in the postwar era. This book begins with artist R. Quaytman uncovering something startling about a picture by Paul Klee. Behind the Angel of History reveals why this hidden face matters, delving into the intertwined artistic, political, and theological issues consuming Germany in the wake of the Great War.

With the Angelus Novus, Klee responded to a growing call for a new religious art. Bourneuf is to be commended for her prodigious, resourceful scholarship and singular contribution to furthering our understanding of Angelus Novus. David J. Getsy argues that Burton looked to nonverbal body language and queer behavior in public space—most importantly, street cruising— as a foundation for rethinking the audiences and possibilities of art and for making complex performance works about bodies and how they communicate.

Alongside performances about cruising, sexual signaling, and power dynamics, Burton also created functional sculptures that covertly signaled queerness by hiding in plain sight as furniture waiting to be used. Getsy has written a masterful work—rigorous, encyclopedic, sympathetic, and inspired—toward a loving recuperation of an artist whose work has at times been eclipsed in histories of art and performance. The resulting book is unyieldingly good, at times breathtakingly so. A restless and wide-ranging artist, Burton transformed his commitment to gay liberation into a unique practice of sculpture and public art that aspired to be antielitist, embracing of differences, and open to all.

Leo Steinberg was one of the most original art historians of the twentieth century, known for taking interpretive risks that challenged the profession by overturning reigning orthodoxies. In essays and lectures ranging from old masters to modern art, he combined scholarly erudition with eloquent prose that illuminated his subject and a credo that privileged the visual evidence of the image over the literature written about it.

His writings, sometimes provocative and controversial, remain vital and influential. Almost everything he wrote included passages of formal analysis put into the service of interpretation. Leo Steinberg — was born in Moscow and raised in Berlin and London, emigrating with his family to New York in Sheila Schwartz worked with Steinberg from until his death in Based on interviews with teachers conducted over the span of fifteen years and videos taken in their classrooms, Hayashi gives us a valuable portrait of expert teachers in the making.

Ris An illuminating history of the reform agenda in higher education. For well over one hundred years, people have been attempting to make American colleges and universities more efficient and more accountable. Indeed, Ethan W. When that reform is beneficial, offering major rewards for minor changes, colleges and universities know how to assimilate it.

When it is hostile, attacking autonomy or values, they know how to resist it. The result is a sector that has learned to accept top-down reform as part of its existence. Their reform efforts were largely directed at the lower tiers of higher education, but those efforts fell short, despite the wealth and power of their backers, leaving a legacy of successful resistance that affects every college and university in the United States.

Today, another coalition of business leaders, philanthropists, and politicians is again demanding efficiency, accountability, and utility from American higher education. But, as Ris argues, top-down design is not destiny. Ethan W. Ris is assistant professor of educational leadership at the University of Nevada, Reno. Quantitative research techniques have become increasingly important in ecology and conservation biology, but the sheer breadth of methods that must be understood—from population modeling and probabilistic thinking to modern statistics, simulation, and data science—as well as a lack of computational or mathematics training have hindered quantitative literacy in these fields.

In this book, ecologist Justin Kitzes answers those challenges for students and practicing scientists alike. Requiring only basic algebra and the ability to use a spreadsheet, the Handbook of Quantitative Ecology is designed to provide a practical, intuitive, and integrated introduction to widely used quantitative methods. Kitzes builds each chapter around a specific ecological problem and arrives, step by step, at a general principle through the act of solving that problem.

Kitzes does an excellent job of translating the properties of biological systems into mathematical models using basic logic and without any advanced math. His approach is a powerful way to demystify these models and make them intuitive.

Gender is at the center of contentious political and social debates, shapes policy decisions, and informs our everyday lives. Its formulation, however, is lesser known: gender was first used in clinical practice.

This book tells the story of the invention of gender in American medicine, detailing how it was shaped by mid-twentieth-century American notions of culture, personality, and social engineering. Sandra Eder shows how the concept of gender transformed from a pragmatic tool in the sex assignment of children with intersex traits in the s to an essential category in clinics for transgender individuals in the s. Following gender outside the clinic, she reconstructs the variable ways feminists integrated gender into their theories and practices in the s.

The process by which ideas about gender became medicalized, enforced, and popularized was messy, and the route by which gender came to be understood and applied through the treatment of patients with intersex traits was fraught and contested. She shows that ideas like gender can take on a life of their own and may be used to question the normative perceptions they were based on.

Illuminating and deeply researched, the book closes a notable gap in the history of gender and will inspire current debates on the relationship between social norms and medical practice. According to Chinese government reports, hundreds of plague-infected rodents fell from the skies over Gannan county on an April night in Chinese scientists determined that these flying voles were not native to the region, but were vectors of germ warfare, dispatched over the border by agents of imperialism.

Mastery of biology had become a way to claim political mastery over a remote frontier. Beginning with this bizarre incident from the Korean War, Knowing Manchuria places the creation of knowledge about nature at the center of our understanding of a little-known but historically important Asian landscape. Ruth Rogaski reveals how an array of historical actors—Chinese poets, Manchu shamans, Russian botanists, Korean mathematicians, Japanese bacteriologists, American paleontologists, and indigenous hunters—made sense of the Manchurian frontier.

Ruth Rogaski is associate professor of history and Asian studies at Vanderbilt University. Shinozuka A rich and eye-opening history of the mutual constitution of race and species in modern America. This is a highly readable book with a powerful argument and a story about the Japanese-American experience that needs to be told.

Over the next fifty years, these crossings transformed conceptions of race and migration, played a central role in the establishment of the US empire and its government agencies, and shaped the fields of horticulture, invasion biology, entomology, and plant pathology. In Biotic Borders, Jeannie N. Shinozuka uncovers the emergence of biological nativism that fueled American imperialism and spurred anti-Asian racism that remains with us today.

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